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Named Entities: Special Characters in HTML
Special Character Codes in GuideML and HTML

If you want to put special characters into your GuideML entries, then there are two ways to do it:

  • Use a \'named entity\', such as £

  • Use the tag, such as

Do not use a \'numbered entity\', such as £ - this will not work on all platforms.

We recommend the first one, as it is slightly clearer to those reading your GuideML. If you want to include special characters in entry titles, then you must use the first type of entity, as only this type will work.

The following tables show named entities and tags, and contain all the characters from the ISO 8859-1 standard.

Please note that most browsers can\'t display all these characters (though one day one assumes they will). Some are better than others - Internet Explorer 5 displays more than Netscape 4.7, for example - so if a character doesn\'t appear below in your browser, then it won\'t show up properly for you even if you use the right code, but it might work for others. Also, some browsers will display correctly when the tag is used, but not when the named entity is used. If in doubt, use a named entity.

Some Macintosh keyboards don\'t have the # symbol on them, but you can type it by pressing Option and 3.

Markup Entities

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
" \" Quotation mark
& & Ampersand
< < Less-than sign
> > Greater-than sign

Punctuation and General Symbols

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
  Non-breakable space
¡ Inverted exclamation mark
¢ Cent sign
£ Pound sterling sign
¤ General currency sign
¥ Yen sign
¦ Broken (vertical) bar
§ Section sign
¨ Umlaut (dieresis)
© Copyright sign
ª Ordinal indicator, feminine
« Angle quotation mark, left
­ Soft hyphen
® Registered sign
¯ Macron
° Degree sign
² Superscript two
³ Superscript three
´ Acute accent
µ Micro sign
Pilcrow (paragraph sign)
· Middle dot
¸ Cedilla
¹ Superscript one
º Ordinal indicator, masculine
» Angle quotation mark, right
¿ Inverted question mark
ˆ Modifier letter circumflex accent
˜ Small tilde
Bullet (small black circle)
Horizontal ellipsis
En space
Em space
Thin space
Zero width non-joiner
Zero width joiner
Left-to-right mark
Right-to-left mark
En dash
Em dash
Left single quotation mark
Right single quotation mark
Single low-9 quotation mark
Left double quotation mark
Right double quotation mark
Double low-9 quotation mark
Double dagger
Per mille sign

Euro sign

Letters and Related Characters

Accented Letters

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
À Capital A, grave accent
Á Capital A, acute accent
 Capital A, circumflex accent
à Capital A, tilde
Ä Capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
Å Capital A, ring
Æ Capital AE diphthong (ligature)
Ç Capital C, cedilla
È Capital E, grave accent
É Capital E, acute accent
Ê Capital E, circumflex accent
Ë Capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ì Capital I, grave accent
Í Capital I, acute accent
Î Capital I, circumflex accent
Ï Capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ð Capital Eth, Icelandic
Ñ Capital N, tilde
Ò Capital O, grave accent
Ó Capital O, acute accent
Ô Capital O, circumflex accent
Õ Capital O, tilde
Ö Capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
× Multiply sign
Ø Capital O, slash
Ù Capital U, grave accent
Ú Capital U, acute accent
Û Capital U, circumflex accent
Ü Capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
Ý Capital Y, acute accent
Þ Capital THORN, Icelandic
ß Lower case sharp s, German (sz ligature)
à Lower case a, grave accent
á Lower case a, acute accent
â Lower case a, circumflex accent
ã Lower case a, tilde
ä Lower case a, dieresis or umlaut mark
å Lower case a, ring
æ Lower case ae diphthong (ligature)
ç Lower case c, cedilla
è Lower case e, grave accent
é Lower case e, acute accent
ê Lower case e, circumflex accent
ë Lower case e, dieresis or umlaut mark
ì Lower case i, grave accent
í Lower case i, acute accent
î Lower case i, circumflex accent
ï Lower case i, dieresis or umlaut mark
ð Lower case eth, Icelandic
ñ Lower case n, tilde
ò Lower case o, grave accent
ó Lower case o, acute accent
ô Lower case o, circumflex accent
õ Lower case o, tilde
ö Lower case o, dieresis or umlaut mark
÷ Divide sign
ø Lower case o, slash
ù Lower case u, grave accent
ú Lower case u, acute accent
û Lower case u, circumflex accent
ü Lower case u, dieresis or umlaut mark
ý Lower case y, acute accent
þ Lower case thorn, Icelandic
ÿ Lower case y, dieresis or umlaut mark


Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
ΠLatin capital ligature oe
œ Latin lower case ligature oe
Š Latin capital letter s with caron
š Latin lower case letter s with caron
Ÿ Latin capital letter y with diaeresis

Greek Characters

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
Α Α Greek capital letter alpha
Β Β Greek capital letter beta
Γ Γ Greek capital letter gamma
Δ Δ Greek capital letter delta
Ε Ε Greek capital letter epsilon
Ζ Ζ Greek capital letter zeta
Η Η Greek capital letter eta
Θ Θ Greek capital letter theta
Ι Ι Greek capital letter iota
Κ Κ Greek capital letter kappa
Λ Λ Greek capital letter lambda
Μ Μ Greek capital letter mu
Ν Ν Greek capital letter nu
Ξ Ξ Greek capital letter xi
Ο Ο Greek capital letter omicron
Π Π Greek capital letter pi
Ρ Ρ Greek capital letter rho
Σ Σ Greek capital letter sigma
Τ Τ Greek capital letter tau
Υ Υ Greek capital letter upsilon
Φ Φ Greek capital letter phi
Χ Χ Greek capital letter chi
Ψ Ψ Greek capital letter psi
Ω Ω Greek capital letter omega
α α Greek small letter alpha
β β Greek small letter beta
γ γ Greek small letter gamma
δ δ Greek small letter delta
ε ε Greek small letter epsilon
ζ ζ Greek small letter zeta
η η Greek small letter eta
θ θ Greek small letter theta
ι ι Greek small letter iota
κ κ Greek small letter kappa
λ λ Greek small letter lambda
μ μ Greek small letter mu
ν ν Greek small letter nu
ξ ξ Greek small letter xi
ο ο Greek small letter omicron
π π Greek small letter pi
ρ ρ Greek small letter rho
ς ς Greek small letter final sigma
σ σ Greek small letter sigma
τ τ Greek small letter tau
υ υ Greek small letter upsilon
φ φ Greek small letter phi
χ χ Greek small letter chi
ψ ψ Greek small letter psi
ω ω Greek small letter omega
ϑ ϑ Greek small letter theta symbol
ϒ ϒ Greek upsilon with hook symbol
ϖ ϖ Greek pi symbol

Mathematical symbols

General Mathematical Symbols

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
¬ Not sign
± Plus-or-minus sign
¼ Fraction one-quarter
½ Fraction one-half
¾ Fraction three-quarters
ƒ Latin small f with hook (function, florin)
Prime (minutes, feet)
Double prime (seconds, inches)
Fraction slash

Letter-like Symbols

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
ƒ Latin small f with hook (function, florin)
Script capital P (power set, Weierstrass p)
Blackletter capital I (imaginary part)
Blackletter capital R (real part)
Trade mark sign
Aleph symbol (first transfinite cardinal)


Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
Left arrow
Up arrow
Right arrow
Down arrow
Left/right arrow
Down arrow with corner left (carriage return)
Left double arrow (is implied by)
Up double arrow
Right double arrow (implies)
Down double arrow
Left/right double arrow

Mathematical Operators

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
For all
Partial differential
There exists
Empty set (null set, diameter)
Nabla (backward difference)
Element of
Not an element of
Contains as member
N-ary product (product sign)
N-ary sumation
Minus sign
Asterisk operator
Square root (radical sign)
Proportional to
Logical and (wedge)
Logical or (vee)
Intersection (cap)
Union (cup)
Tilde operator (varies with, similar to)
Approximately equal to
Almost equal to (asymptotic to)
Not equal to
Identical to
Less-than or equal to
Greater-than or equal to
Subset of
Superset of
Not a subset of
Subset of or equal to
Superset of or equal to
Circled plus (direct sum)
Circled times (vector product)
Up tack (orthogonal to, perpendicular)
Dot operator

Miscellaneous Technical Symbols

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
Left ceiling
Right ceiling
Left floor
Right floor
Left-pointing angle bracket
Right-pointing angle bracket

Miscellaneous Symbols

Named Entity ENTITY Tag Character Description
Black spade suit
Black club suit
Black heart suit
Black diamond suit

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